The Ultimate Essential Oil Reference Guide: Includes 75 Oils, Carrier Oils, Origins & Emotional Properties

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Find An Oil To Support Your Emotions

Tree, herb and grass oils tend to help calm and balance emotions (sesquiterpenes, esters, and oxides) while citrus oils tend to be uplifting (limonene, beta-pinene, and monoterpenes) and spice oils promote feelings of warmth (phenols)

When you are feeling worn out and need a mental boost

(energy/focus)

When you are feeling stressed, anxious or irritable

(calming/comforting)

When you are feeling down, sad or emotional

(uplifting/balancing)

Basil Bergamot Bergamot
Bergamot Cedarwood Clary Sage
Black Pepper Clary Sage Cypress
Clary Sage Frankincense Frankincense
Cypress Geranium Geranium
Frankincense Grapefruit Grapefruit
Ginger Jasmine Helichrysum
Grapefruit Lavender Jasmine
Helichrysum Mandarin
Lavender
Hyssop Neroli Lemon
Jasmine Patchouli Mandarin
Lemon Roman Chamomile Neroli
Patchouli Rose Orange
Peppermint Sandalwood Roman Chamomile
Rosemary Vetiver Rose
Sandalwood Ylang Ylang Sandalwood
Vetiver   Ylang Ylang

Oils have been used for centuries to heal certain ailments, stimulate the senses, alter moods and emotions and help the body’s own natural healing processes.

Many essential oils have even been scientifically proven to contain certain compounds which have extremely powerful and positive effects on the human body, either when applied topically, diffused and inhaled (such as in an aroma diffuser), or ingested.

Whether you’re suffering from a specific health concern, are curious about the variety of wellness benefits offered by different essential oils, or are just looking for a way to relax and unwind while making your home smell divine at the same time, then read on to find out about all the different types of oils out there and the properties of each.

Quick note on the different types of oils:

  • Essential oils – can be produced through steam distillation without the use of any additional substances
  • Absolutes – extracted from plants but require the use of solvents in the extraction process. This is usually because the steam distillation will damage the delicate plant or fail to extract enough of the oil. The solvents are removed later but some traces can remain in the oil.
  • Carrier oils – also known as a base oil or vegetable oil. These oils are mainly used to dilute essential oils before they are applied topically so as to prevent skin irritation. Carrier oils also have their own therapeutic properties so the choice of carrier oil is important depending on how and why you intend to use it.

Carrier oils

What are carrier oils?
These are often called base oils or fixed oils and they are used to dilute essential oils to make them easier and safer to use. Most carrier oils are derived from vegetables, seeds or nuts and are perfect for massage as many have health benefits of their own.

  • Almond oil – this is usually referred to as Sweet Almond Oil and is pale yellow in colour. The aroma is light and very slightly sweet. The oil itself has B and E vitamins and it is very commonly used in a variety of skin preparations. It is a good choice for those who have sensitive skin but those who have a nut allergy should avoid it. A patch test using a very tiny amount could be tried for those who are unsure.
  • Avocado oil – Avocado oil is rich and has a slightly sweet but nutty fragrance. The consistency of the oil is thick and the colour is a strong olive green. It is one of the most nourishing oils and for this reason it is often found in skin and hair care products. Some users may find the heavy texture to be too much.
  • Calendula oil – There is a difference between calendula carrier oil and the essential oil of the same name. The carrier oil is created by using vegetable oils and infusing them with calendula flowers. The aroma is usually light and pleasant and it is packed with vitamins. It is often used to create skin salves and lotions that aim to heal damaged skin. It is important to make sure that the calendula product that you are buying is a good quality product. Often the base oil here is olive, although jojoba and sunflower oil are also used.
  • Evening primrose oil – This oil is one that is high in fatty acids so it is a popular choice for skin products. It is for this reason that it is often used in products designed to ease the symptoms of eczema. However, it is often used alongside other carrier oils as it is quite costly.
  • Grapeseed oil – This is one of the more popular carrier oils. It is a thin oil, that is lightweight and when it is used it leaves a sheen on the skin. The oil is a very pale green-yellow and the aroma is slightly nutty. It is a popular choice for massage, but solvent-extracted versions may have some chemical residue. It is important to look for a brand that has been expeller pressed.
  • Hazelnut oil – The sweet, slightly nutty fragrance of hazelnut oil makes this another of the popular oils. It can be absorbed quickly and easily by the skin and it is a good choice for a massage, particularly for those who have oily skin. The oil is slightly astringent so if you want something that will moisturise, another oil may be a better choice.
  • Jojoba oil – this oil is thick and has a waxy texture but it does have a unique pleasant aroma. It is a popular choice for massage and it benefits from an indefinite shelf life. It has healing properties for those who have acne-prone skin, but only small amounts are needed – just a few drops will suffice.
  • Macadamia oil – this oil has a fragrance that is sweet and nutty and is light yellow in colour. It is considered to be ideal for massage but some people might find the fragrance is a little strong.
  • Olive oil – this is not one of the most popular oils, possibly because it is more widely associated with cooking. It has a long shelf life but it also has a strong aroma. If using with essential oils a cold-pressed extra virgin variety is best.
  • Sesame oil – this oil is commonly used in Asian cookery and it does have a strong fragrance which is a little overpowering for aromatherapy. It is often used as a blend with other carrier oils, particularly as it is a thick oil. However, it is a good choice for massage.
  • Walnut oil – this is considered to be a good choice for some skin conditions such as warts or psoriasis. It is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids and it is a great choice for dry skin. However, it should be avoided by those who have a nut allergy.
  • Wheat germ oil – this oil has a dark colour and a fairly strong fragrance, so it can often overpower the aroma from the essential oils. However, it is a very nourishing oil so is a good choice for facial massage and body lotions and creams. Check the label to ensure it is expeller-pressed oil rather than solvent extracted and it should always be kept refrigerated. It has a very short shelf life of around two months even when stored in ideal conditions.

Allspice Oil – Pimenta Dioica

About: Allspice is much loved by keen cooks because its spicy warmth makes it ideal for both sweet and savoury bakes. A natural analgesic and anaesthetic, it is often referred to as pimento oil. The trees are often used on coffee plantations to provide shade.

Native Country: Allspice trees are native to Jamaica but are now found all over the world.

Scent: spicy, warm

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffuse, dilute for massage, dilute in bath and shower

Mind: Allspice oil can be used to help to ease stress, nervous disorders and anxiety. Diffusing the oil can help you to relax. Also thought to be an aphrodisiac.

Precautions: Allspice should be used carefully by those who have sensitive skin and the oil can also be irritating on the mucus membranes. Allspice should not be used neat and should not be used on children under 6.

Blends with: bay, black pepper, camphor, clove, coriander, geranium, ginger, lavender, neroli, orange, patchouli, rose geranium, ylang ylang

Aniseed Oil – Pimpinella Anisum

aniseed

About: The liquorice fragrance of aniseed oil makes it an essential cooking ingredient in countries like India and Turkey.

Native Country: Aniseed herbs can be found in many parts of the world. The oil is taken from the small seeds of the flowers.

Scent: sweet

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower.

Mind: Aniseed oil can be used to help ease anxiety and nervous problems, particularly when inhaled.

Precautions: Care should be taken not to confuse aniseed oil with star anise oil. At low temperatures it can solidify so should be warmed to room temperature before use. It is a phototoxic oil so users should avoid being in direct sunlight for at least 24-48 hours after use. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant, suffering from cancer, have liver disease, those who are breastfeeding, children under the age of 6 and it should never be taken internally.

Blends with: caraway, cardamom, cedarwood, coriander, dill, fennel, mandarin, petitgrain, rosewood

Basil Oil – Ocimum Basilicum

basil

About: This herb is found in many kitchens all over the world and is used dried, fresh or in the form of an oil. Its stimulating qualities make it ideal for use when you are feeling under the weather.

Native Country: Grown easily in warmer climates, basil is a herb that can be grown in many parts of the world.

Scent: The fragrance is spicy-sweet.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage, in the form of a compress

Mind: Basil oil can help with mental alertness and should be inhaled to help to focus the mind.

Precautions: Basil oil should be avoided by those who are suffering from epilepsy and cancer, by those who are pregnant and those who have sensitive skin. It can be irritating to the skin and those under the age of 16 should not use it.

Blends with: bergamot, black pepper, camphor, caraway, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, clove, fennel, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lemon verbena, mandarin, manuka, marjoram, neroli, orange, peppermint, rose geranium, rosemary, spearmint, tangerine, tea tree

Bay Oil – Laurus Nobilis

bayleaf

About: Bay leaves are a culinary favourite thanks to the aromatic leaves, but the essential oil has a stronger fragrance than the leaves, so it is often used in the making of candles and soaps. The ancient Romans linked the herb with strength, peace and protection.

Native Country: Grown easily in most climates, it is a popular herb in most parts of the world.

Scent: The fragrance is fresh and sweet

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diluted in the bath or shower, diffused, diluted for massage or as a compress

Mind: inhaling the oil can help with creativity and with balancing the emotions

Precautions: Bay oil can irritate the mucus membranes and can be irritating for the skin. Users of anticoagulant medication and sufferers of haemophilia should not use the oil. Those who are pregnant should avoid the oil, as should those who are suffering from cancer, kidney disease and liver disease. It should not be used for children under the age of 6.

Blends with: allspice, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, clove, coriander, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, hyssop, juniper, lavender, lemon, nutmeg, orange, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, pine, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, thyme, ylang ylang.

Benzoin Oil – Styrax Benzoin

About: Benzoin is an oil used mainly within the perfume industry and for making incense.

Native Country: The benzoin tree is found mainly in Thailand, Sumatra and Java. The oil is made from the sap of the tree.

Scent: The fragrance is warm, sweet and similar to vanilla.

Consistency: thick

Application methods: dilution in the bath or shower, diffusion for mental and emotional conditions, dilute for massage

Mind: Benzoin oil is extremely relaxing and can help to ease everyday stress and anxiety. It is useful for helping balance the emotions.

Precautions: The sedative effect of benzoin oil means that using it before driving or operating any kind of machinery is not advised. It is not safe for use on children under the age of 6.

Blends with: bergamot, birch, cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cypress, fir needle, frankincense, German chamomile, juniper, lavender, lemon, myrrh, neroli, orange, peppermint, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, spruce

Bergamot Oil – Citrus Bergamia

bergamot

About: Bergamot is an oil that was originally developed to treat digestive problems and feverish conditions. It is popular with perfume manufacturers and it is now one of the most widely used essential oils.

Native Country: Italy – the name comes from the city of Bergamo and the oil comes from the rind of the citrus fruit.

Scent: The fragrance is strongly citrus, fresh and spicy-sweet.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: Can be used in the bath or shower, diffused to harness the emotional benefits, inhaled for emotional benefits or diluted for use in massage.

Mind: Bergamot oil can be used to help depression, anxiety and stress.

Precautions: Bergamot oil has phototoxic qualities so those who use it should not be exposed to sunlight for at least 12 hours. It should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: basil, bay, benzoin, birch, black pepper, cajeput, camphor, cardamom, carrot seed, cedarwood, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clover, coriander, cypress, fennel, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, jasmine, juniper, lavandin, lavender, lemon balm, mandarin, manuka, marjoram, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, niaouli, nutmeg, orange, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, tagetes, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang ylang

Birch – Betula Alba

Birch leaves and branches hanging on a wall before use

By kallerna – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php

About: This is a popular essential oil for skin and hair care and it is well known for its pain-relieving qualities. The main component of the oil is methyl salicylate. Sometimes it is known as silver birch, sweet birch or European white birch.

Native Country: Native to North America, it was used widely by Native Americans and European settlers.

Scent: balsamic and very similar to wintergreen.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower, compress

Mind: Birch oil is not normally used for mental and emotional reasons and more for physical purposes.

Precautions: Care should be taken by those who have sensitive skin and the oil should be diluted in a solution that has no more than 25% birch oil. It should be avoided by epilepsy sufferers and those taking anticoagulant medication. Those who have an allergy to aspirin should not use the oil and nor should those who are pregnant.

Blends with: benzoin, bergamot, grapefruit, jasmine, lemon, orange, rosemary, sandalwood

Black Pepper – Piper Nigrum

black pepper being tipped out of a jar

About: Black pepper oil is a stimulating oil that has been used in medicinal practices for thousands of years.

Native Country: The first recorded use of black pepper for medicinal purposes was 3000 years ago in India.

Scent: similar to freshly-ground peppercorns

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower, compress for pain such as arthritis

Mind: Can be used to help with mental clarity

Precautions: Care should be taken when using black pepper oil if you have sensitive skin. It can also overstimulate the kidneys and should be avoided before trying to sleep. It should not be used in combination with homeopathic remedies, should not be used by those who are pregnant and it is not to be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: allspice, basil, bergamot, cardamom, cassia, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, dill, fennel, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, Manuka, marjoram, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, peppermint, rosemary, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, tea tree, vetiver, ylang ylang

Cajeput – Melaleuca Leucadendra

About: Cajeput oil is very similar to tea tree and is great for those who are feeling under the weather. It is often referred to as white tea and cajeput.

Native Country: Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia

Scent: slightly camphor-like but with a fresh and fruity aroma

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage, compress

Mind: Can be used to help boost mental clarity

Precautions: Those with sensitive skin should use cajeput oil carefully and it should never be used on children under 6.

Blends with: bergamot, camphor, clove, geranium, lavender, rose geranium, thyme

Calamus – Acorus Calamus Var.Angustatus

calamus plant

Image Source

About: Calamus is an essential oil that is taken from the roots of a wetland plant and is often used by those suffering from emotional distress. It is also known as Sweet Myrtle.

Native Country: India, Europe and North America

Scent: Calamus has a fragrance that is reminiscent of a woodland walk

Consistency: thin to medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage,

Mind: This is a popular oil for dealing with emotions of shame and to reduce panic, tension and anxiety.

Precautions: This oil should be handled very carefully and used sparingly. When used neat or accidentally ingested, it can lead to hallucinations and convulsions. Only a tiny amount should be used in a dilution for massage or in bath water. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant and should not be used on children under the age of 6.

Blends with: cedarwood, cinnamon, clary sage, lavender, patchouli, rosemary, tea tree, ylang ylang

Camphor – Cinnamomum Camphora

camphor laural flower

Image Source: John Tann Flickr

About: Camphor is a strongly-scented oil which is very medicinal. It is often used in vapour products designed for aiding breathing when suffering from colds. Taken from the tree of the same name, the oil has been in use for thousands of years.

Native Country: Originally China, Japan and Taiwan, but now also in Sri Lanka and India.

Scent: Camphor oil has a strong, medicinal fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage, compress

Mind: camphor oil can help ease a nervous mind

Precautions: This oil should only be used sparingly as too much can cause convulsions and vomiting. It should be avoided by those who have asthma, epilepsy and by those who are pregnant. It should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: allspice, basil, bergamot, cajeput, eucalyptus, frankincense, German chamomile, ginger, lavender lemon, Melissa, nutmeg, orange, oregano, Roman chamomile, rosemary

Caraway – Carum Carvi

caraway

By Slick (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Caraway oil is taken from the popular spice used often in cooking. As a medicinal aid, it can help with a variety of ailments and is often referred to as Persian cumin. The use of the spice was in evidence during the Stone Age.
Native Country: Originally found in Asia Minor but it is now cultivated in many parts of the world
Scent: Caraway oil has a peppery but sweet fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage
Mind: caraway oil is used to improve physical ailments rather than mental and emotional ailments

Precautions: Caraway oil can be irritating on sensitive skin and it should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: aniseed, basil, cardamom, cassia, coriander, dill, frankincense, German chamomile, ginger, lavender, orange, Roman chamomile

Cardamom – Elettaria Cardamomum

cardamom

Image Source: Luc Viatour: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Cardamom oil is a great digestive aid but can be used to help with a variety of ailments. Its use dates back to ancient times and it is actually one of the most expensive spices in the world.

Native Country: Originally cultivated in India, it is still only grown in certain parts of Asia.

Scent: Cardamom oil has a strong aroma with sweet and spicy notes.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage, a compress

Mind: cardamom oil can be used to ease nervousness and stress as well as giving a boost to mental alertness.

Precautions: Cardamom oil is generally considered safe for general use.

Blends with: aniseed, bay, bergamot, black pepper, caraway, cedarwood, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, fennel, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lemon, lemongrass, mandarin, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang-ylang.

Carrot Seed – Daucus Carota

Useful carrot seed oil in glass bottle on the table close-up horizontal.

About: Carrot seed oil comes from wild carrot, which is often referred to as Queen Anne’s lace. Infused and cold pressed versions of the oil are available and it often has a strong yellow colour because of the pigment carotene. Claims are often made about the vitamin content of the oil but the highest concentration of vitamins are found in the root of the plant rather than the seeds.

Native Country: Found in temperate regions all over the world.

Scent: Carrot seed oil has a woody, earthy aroma that is slightly fruity.

Consistency: thin to medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, dilution for massage, a compress

Mind: carrot seed oil is good for easing the symptoms of stress

Precautions: Carrot seed oil should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: bergamot, cedarwood, cinnamon, geranium, ginger, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, rose geranium

Cassia – Cinnamomum Cassia

cassia fistula tree

By The original uploader was Peter1968 at English Wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons.) [CC BY 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5), GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Cassia oil is taken from the tree of the same name and the herb is used widely in soft drinks, curries and sweets. It has a wide variety of health benefits and its use dates back thousands of years.
Native Country: The cassia tree is an evergreen that is native to China.
Scent: Cassia oil has a strong and spicy aroma, reminiscent of cinnamon
Consistency: medium
Application methods: diffusing, dilution for massage

Mind: cassia oil can be used to help lift your mood

Precautions: Cassia oil can be irritating for those who have sensitive skin and a patch test is recommended. Only a very small amount should be used in dilution. It can also be irritating for the mucus membranes. Cassia should not be used by those who are pregnant and it is not safe for use on those aged 6 and under.

Blends with: black pepper, caraway, coriander, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, nutmeg, Roman chamomile, rosemary

Cedarwood – Juniperus Virginiana/Cedrus Atlantica/Cedrus Deodora

Cedar oil in a bottle, with a branch of cedar cones, cedar nuts, two green soap, two towels on a bamboo mat

 

About: Cedarwood oil is one of the oldest-known essential oils in the world and it was widely used by ancient civilisations for many different purposes. It remains one of the most popular oils with aromatherapy professionals and is used in many perfumes and household products.

Native Country: The trees are native to North America and the USA is the main producer of the essential oil.

Scent: Cedarwood oil has an aroma that is similar to the cedar tree.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower, compress

Mind: this is a calming oil, ideal for use in stressful situations and to ease a nervous disposition

Precautions: this is not an ideal oil for those who suffer from sensitive skin so a patch test is recommended. It can be irritating for the mucus membranes and it should not be used by those who are pregnant. It is not safe for use on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: aniseed, basil, bay, benzoin, bergamot, calamus, cardamom, carrot seed, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, ginger, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, marjoram, neroli, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, sandalwood, spruce, valerian, vetiver

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, C.Verum

cinnamon

By Simon A. Eugster (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Cinnamon is associated with the warmth feeling that the spice generates. It is an essential oil that has long been known for its health benefits. It is widely used in Ayurveda and it blends well with many different oils.
Native Country: The trees are native to tropical Asia and it was first widely used in India and Sri Lanka.
Scent: Cinnamon has a spicy fragrance that is often associated with winter and Christmas.
Consistency: thin to medium
Application methods: diffusing, inhaling, dilution in the bath or shower, dilute for massage
Mind: Cinnamon oil is used to help lift your mood.

Precautions: Cinnamon oil should always be taken from the leaves of the tree rather than the bark. The bark oil is toxic, although the leaf oil should also be used with caution. It should be avoided by pregnant women and those who suffer from prostate cancer, haemophilia, kidney problems and liver problems. It should be avoided by those who are on anticoagulant medications and those who have sensitive skin. It can also be irritating for the mucus membranes and it should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: benzoin, bergamot, calamus, cardamom, carrot seed, cedarwood, clove, coriander, dill, elemi, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, lavandin, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, rose, rosemary, tangerine, thyme, ylang-ylang

Citronella – Cymbopogon Nardus, Andropogon Nardus

Bamboo citronella torches and plant

About: Citronella has long been associated with repelling insects, but it does have a variety of uses. It is taken from a long grass and it is important to make sure that the oil you purchase is labelled as citronella essential oil rather than just citronella oil – the latter is not meant for common use.

Native Country: The grasses can be found in Sri Lanka and Java.

Scent: Citronella has a sweet and citrus fragrance.

Consistency: Thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, spray on clothes and skin as an insect repellent

 

Mind: Citronella oil is used primarily for treating physical and external conditions

Precautions: Citronella oil can lead to sensitivity and irritation in the mucus membranes and it should not be used by those who have been diagnosed with oestrogen-dependent cancers. It can encourage menstrual flow and should be avoided by those who are pregnant. It should not be used on children under the age of 6.

Blends with: basil, bergamot, cedarwood, geranium, lavandin, lavender, lemon, lime, orange, oregano, pine, rose geranium, rosemary, sandalwood

Clary Sage – Salvia Sclarea

clary-sage

About: Clary sage is part of the sage family and it is considered to be an essential part of any aromatherapy professional’s stock. Used for treating a wide range of complaints and conditions, it is obtained by steam distillation of the plant. It has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.

Native Country: The plant is widely grown throughout Europe.

Scent: The fragrance of clary sage is slightly nutty but very pleasant. Some would describe it as floral but others describe it as herby.

Consistency: Thin to medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, compress

 

Mind: Clary sage can be used to help lift your mood and help with emotional issues as it has a very calming and sedative effect

Precautions: Clary sage oil is not recommended for use before driving or operating machinery. Use of sedatives or alcohol at the same time as using clary sage should be avoided. Care should be taken not to use too much of the oil as it can lead to headaches and it should not be used by pregnant women. It is not safe for use on children under the age of 6.

Blends with: Basil, bay, bergamot, black pepper, calamus, cardamom, cedarwood, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, grapefruit, helichrysum, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavandin, lavender, lemon balm, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, manuka, neroli, nutmeg, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, sandalwood, spikenard, spruce, tagetes, tea tree, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Clove – Syzygium Aromaticum, Eugenia Caryophyllata

cloves and essential oil

About: Clove oil is taken from the spice of the same name and is has long been used for health purposes. Its dental benefits are well-known but there are other conditions that it can be used for so making it a standard part of your kit is a good idea. Cloves are taken from the flower buds of a tree from the Myrtaceae family.

Native Country: The tree comes originally from the Indonesian Maluku islands.

Scent: Clove oil fragrance is very strong, with both sweet and spicy tones.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Clove oil is used mainly to deal with physical symptoms rather than emotional symptoms.

Precautions: Clove oil can be irritating for those who have sensitive skin and it can also be an irritant for the mucus membranes. It should not be used by those who have cancer and it should not be used by pregnant women or on those aged 6 or under.

Blends with: Allspice, basil, bay, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, cajeput, cardamom, cinnamon, clary sage, coriander, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichysum, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, mandarin, myrrh, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, tea tree, ylang-ylang

Coriander – Coriandrum Sativum

A glass bottle of coriander oil on yellow napkin

About: Coriander essential oil is taken from the herb of the same name. The herb is widely used in cookery. The seeds of the plant are considered to have been an aphrodisiac by the Egyptians and it can be used for a number of different ailments.

Native Country: The herb is native to southern Europe, northern Africa and parts of south-west Asia.

Scent: Coriander oil has an herby and slightly spicy fragrance.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: Coriander oil can be diffused in the bath and shower for better absorption, diffusion when using to stimulate appetite, dilute for massage

 

Mind: this is a calming oil that is often used to ease digestive discomfort as well as emotional issues such as stress. Also thought to be an aphrodisiac.

Precautions: Coriander oil can be irritating for those who have sensitive skin, too much oil can leave the user feeling as though they are in a stupor.

Blends with: Allspice, aniseed, bay, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, caraway, cardamom, cassia, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, cypress, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lemon, lemongrass, neroli, nutmeg, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, ravensara, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Cypress – Cupressus Sempervirens

cypress

About: Cypress is an essential oil that can be used to help with a number of emotional ailments as well as physical symptoms. It is steam distilled and taken from the needles of the cypress tree. It is often used as an ingredient in deodorants and skin creams.

Native Country: The cypress tree is native to the Mediterranean region.

Scent: Cypress oil has a fragrance that is reminiscent of evergreen forests and is very refreshing.

Consistency: Thin

Application methods: Cypress oil can be diffused in the bath and shower for better absorption, diffusion, dilute for massage.

 

Mind: this is a calming oil that can be used to help to clear the mind and ease stress, it can help with concentration.

Precautions: Cypress oil should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, cedarwood, clary sage, coriander, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, juniper, lavender, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, manuka, marjoram, myrrh, oregano, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rose geranium, spikenard, tea tree, ylang-ylang

Dill – Anethum Graveolens

dill

About: Dill oil is taken from the herb of the same name and has many of the same characteristics. It works on both physical and emotional symptoms and comes from the parsley family. The oil is taken from the seeds that grow within the plant’s yellow flowers.

Native Country: The plant originally comes from tropical areas in Asia and Africa.

Scent: Dill oil has a fresh and sweet scent that is similar to aniseed.

Consistency: very thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Dill oil can be used to help with the symptoms of nervousness.

Precautions: Dill oil should never be used during pregnancy. It is also phototoxic so should never be used on skin that is going to be exposed to sunlight for a minimum of 12 hours before.

Blends with: Aniseed, black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, clove, elemi, fennel, lemon, lime, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, spearmint

Elemi – Canarium Luzonicum

About: Elemi oil is similar to both frankincense and myrrh. It is taken from the resin or gum of the tree and can be used for a number of physical and emotional symptoms. It is widely used by the cosmetics industry and is thought to have been one of the oils that the ancient Egyptians used when embalming mummies.

Native Country: The tree originally comes from the Philippines and the Moluccas Islands.

Scent: The fragrance of Elemi oil is very spicy and fresh.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use neat on muscle pains, scars and stiffness, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Elemi oil can help with achieving emotional balance, dealing with the symptoms of nervousness and stress.

Precautions: Elemi oil can be a problem for those who have sensitive skin, a patch test is recommended.

Blends with: cinnamon, dill, frankincense, juniper, lavender, lemon verbena, myrrh, rosemary, sage

Eucalyptus – Eucalyptus Globulus, E.Radiata

Still life of derived products from eucalyptus. Oil, tea etc.

About: Native to Australia, the Aborigines have been using Eucalyptus in traditional medical practices for years. This sought after essential oil is well known for high concentrations of 1,8 cineole, the properties of which mean that the oil can be used in support of a wide variety of health conditions as well as various household and commercial uses. There are hundreds of species of Eucalyptus but when it comes to essential oils there are 3 main oils that are available:

  • Eucalyptus Globulus – also known as Blue-Gum Eucalyptus. This essential oil usually has the highest 1,8-cineole levels
  • Eucalyptus Radiata – also known as Narrow-Leaved Peppermint. This is thought to be the most therapeutic Eucalyptus essential oil
  • Eucalyptus Citriodora – also known as Lemon Eucalyptus or Lemon-Scented Gum

Native Country: Australia but has spread to many other countries such as Europe, South Africa, India and China.

Scent:

  • Eucalyptus Globulus – fresh, strong, uplifting scent that is medicinal, herbal and clean
  • Eucalyptus Radiata – similar to globulus in that it is medicinal and clean, but many prefer the lighter, sweeter, peppermint aroma from radiata
  • Eucalyptus Citriodora – sweet, strong, fresh lemon scent

Application Methods: diffuse, topical (diluted with carrier oil), household

 

Other Uses: insect and pest repellent, household cleaning (citriodora especially), ingredient in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products

Other Benefits: focus and energise the mind, reduce fatigue, calm nerves, clear the respiratory system, improve blood flow, freshen and sterilize the room

Precautions:

  • Avoid using with homeopathic remedies
  • Do not use if pregnant
  • Do not use if you have estrogen dependent cancer
  • Not safe for young children
  • Not for internal use

Blends With: bay, camphor, cedarwood, cypress, geranium, german chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, manuka, marjoram, niaouli, orange, oregano, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, roman chamomile, rosemary, spearmint, tea tree, thyme

Fennel – Foeniculum Vulgare

fennel

About: Fennel oil comes from the herb of the same name, which has long been cultivated and used for culinary purposes. The oil can be used for a number of ailments both emotional and physical and it has become one of the most widely used essential oils. The oil is taken from the seeds of the plant.

Native Country: The herb is native to southern parts of Europe and the Mediterranean.

Scent: Fennel oil has a strong aniseed-type aroma.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, it can be used neat on inflammation and to provide pain relief.

 

Mind: Fennel essential oil is used mainly to deal with physical symptoms.

Precautions: Fennel essential oil should never be used by those who have been diagnosed with epilepsy or cancer and it should also be avoided by those who are pregnant. It should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: Aniseed, basil, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, cypress, dill, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, mandarin, marjoram, Melissa, niaouli, orange, pine, ravensara, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, sandalwood, tangerine, ylang-ylang

Fir Needle – Abies Balsamea, A.Alba

fir needle essential oil

About: Fir needle oil has become a popular essential oil and it can be used for a number of different medicinal purposes as well as household tasks. It is extracted by steam distillation from the needles

Native Country: Fir trees are found throughout north and central America, Europe and parts of Asia. The oil is produced mainly in Europe.

Scent: Fir tree oil has a refreshing pine-type aroma.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Fir needle essential oil is used mainly to deal with physical symptoms.

Precautions: Fir needle essential oil can cause some skin irritation so a patch test is considered to be necessary before use.

Blends with: Benzoin, lavender, lemon, marjoram, orange, pine, rosemary

Frankincense – Boswellia Carteri

frankincense

By Peter Presslein (photo taken by Peter Presslein) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Frankincense is an oil that has used for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians used it to make incense and in skin care products. It has a number of physical and emotional benefits and is extracted from the resin of the tree. Frankincense is well-known as one of the gifts taken by the three wise men to the baby Jesus. The tree is also referred to as Boswellia.
Native Country: The tree is native to Oman and Yemen, and in some parts of northern Africa.
Scent: The fragrance of frankincense essential oil is woody, but warm, spicy and slightly sweet.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage
Mind: Frankincense oil can be used to help to achieve emotional balance and to deal with nightmares

Precautions: Frankincense essential oil should not be used by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bay, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, camphor, caraway, cassia, cedarwood, cinnamon, clary sage, coriander, cypress, elemi, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, mandarin, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, sandalwood, spikenard, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Geranium – Pelargonium Odorantissimum

Essential geranium oil on the wooden background

About: Geranium is a very popular flower but fewer people know of the benefits of the plant as an essential oil. It is used to help with many emotional issues but can also be of benefit in physical complaints too. Similar in effect to rose essential oil, it is often used as an alternative because of the high cost of rose oil.

Native Country: Geranium flowers are native to South Africa.

Scent: Geranium has a floral fragrance that is also slightly minty.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Geranium can be used to help lift your mood and help alleviate with the symptoms of anxiety and stress.

Precautions: Geranium can be irritating on sensitive skin and it should not be used before operating machinery or driving due to the sedative effects. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant and should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: Allspice, basil, bay, bergamot, black pepper, cajeput, carrot seed, cassia, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, mandarin, manuka, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, tea tree, vetiver, ylang-ylang

German Chamomile – Matricaria Chamomilla, M.Recutita

Small bottle of essential chamomile oil

About: Chamomile is one of the oldest known medicinal plants and it is a very popular herbal remedy and essential oil. It is most often used for its calming effects although it can be used to help with other ailments. The German variety of chamomile is very similar to the Roman variety and in most cases they can be switched with no reduction in effectiveness. German chamomile is also known as wild chamomile.

Native Country: German chamomile is native to Western Europe and parts of northern Africa.

Scent: German chamomile has a warm, sweet and slightly herbal fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, use neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Chamomile can be used to help with anxiety and stress symptoms.

Precautions: The relaxing effects of German chamomile essential oil mean that it should not be used before operating machinery or driving. It should not be used by pregnant women.

Blends with: Benzoin, bergamot, camphor, caraway, cassia, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, helichrysum, jasmine, lavender, lemon, manuka, marjoram, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, tangerine, tea tree, ylang-ylang

Ginger – Zingiber Officinale

Ginger essential oil

About: Ginger is a well-known ingredient in baking and it has long been used in alternative medicine for its varied health benefits. The oil is distilled from the root of the plant and it is considered to be so strong that it is recommended that it used only with the help of a qualified practitioner. It has been in use in Asian, Arabic and Indian medicines for centuries.

Native Country: Ginger is widely believed to have come from India originally.

Scent: Ginger has a spicy and warming fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Ginger essential oil can help lift your mood

Precautions: Ginger essential oil can be irritating for the skin so a patch test is recommended before use. It can also cause photo-sensitivity in some people so it is recommended not to go out in the sun for at least 12 hours after use. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Allspice, basil, bay, bergamot, black pepper, camphor, caraway, cardamom, cassia, cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, coriander, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, rose, rose geranium, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Grapefruit – Citrus Paradisi

pink grapefruit used to make essential oil

By Citrus_paradisi_(Grapefruit,_pink).jpg: א (Aleph) derivative work: — raeky (Citrus_paradisi_(Grapefruit,_pink).jpg) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Grapefruit essential oil is considered to be one of the most uplifting and one of the most versatile. The oil is cold-pressed from the skin of the fruit. It is not overly strong like some other citrus oils and the oil can be obtained from the white or pink grapefruit.
Native Country: The grapefruit developed in Barbados as an accidental hybrid of two other fruits.
Scent: Grapefruit essential oil has a sweet fragrance that is very citrus-like.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage
Mind: Grapefruit essential oil can help lift your mood

Precautions: Grapefruit essential oil can be a skin irritant for some people so a patch test is recommended. When using the oil it is recommended not to expose the skin to sunlight for at least 12 hours afterwards because it can cause photo-sensitivity.

Blends with: Basil, bergamot, birch, black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, hyssop, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, mandarin, manuka, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, pine, Roman chamomile, rose geranium, rosemary, tangerine, thyme, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Helichrysum – Helichrysum Italicum

Fresh helichrysum twig and oil on a wooden background

About: Helichrysum is an essential oil that is used mainly for physical healing. It is considered to be one of the best regenerative oils available. The essential oil is extracted by a process of steam distillation from the flowers of the plant. As an alternative medicine it has been in use for thousands of years.

Native Country: The helichrysum flower is native to the Mediterranean region.

Scent: Helichrysum essential oil has a fresh, herby and earthy aroma.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Helichrysum essential oil is used mainly for treating physical ailments.

Precautions: Helichrysum is generally considered safe to use.

Blends with: Bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, clove, cypress, geranium, German chamomile, juniper, lavender, lemon, neroli, orange, palmarosa, rosemary, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Hyssop – Hyssopus Officinalis

Fresh hyssop twigs on wooden purple background, top view

About: Hyssop is a strongly fragrant herb that was widely used by the Romans, who liked its purification qualities. This herb has even been mentioned in the Bible and it is known to help with a variety of ailments. The oil is obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and flowers of the plant.

Native Country: The hyssop plant is native to southern Europe, the Mediterranean region and parts of Asia.

Scent: Hyssop essential oil has a fresh, fruity and slightly woody aroma.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Hyssop essential oil is useful for helping to find emotional balance, help with the symptoms of anxiety and promote mental alertness

Precautions: Hyssop essential oil should not be used by those who are suffering from epilepsy and it should not be used by those who are pregnant. It is not considered to be safe for children under the age of 12.

Blends with: Basil, bay, clary sage, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, mandarin, myrtle, orange, rosemary, sage

Jasmine – Jasminum Officinale

Jasmine essential oil and flowers on wooden table

About: Jasmine essential oil is one of the most fragrant essential oils there is and it is used for many different health reasons. It is one of the more expensive essential oils. The oil is extracted from the flowers using solvent and is widely used in the perfume industry. There are more than 200 varieties of the flower.

Native Country: The jasmine flower is generally found in tropical parts of the world but it is believed that it originated in the Himalayas.

Scent: Jasmine essential oil has a beautiful floral aroma.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, use neat in certain circumstances, inhale directly for emotional benefits

 

Mind: Jasmine essential oil can be used to lift your mood and help with stress and nervousness.

Precautions: Jasmine essential oil should not be used by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bergamot, birch, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, clove, coriander, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, lavandin, lemon, lime, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, orange, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosewood, sandalwood, spearmint, tagetes, tangerine, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Juniper – Juniperus Communis

Juniper branch and berries with essential oil bottles.

About: Juniper is a fragrant conifer tree and its medicinal properties have been known for centuries. The essential oil can be used for a variety of conditions and symptoms. The oil is obtained from the berries through steam distillation. The berries themselves can take up to three years to ripen.

Native Country: The smaller variety of the juniper tree is found in north-east America and the taller variety is common to Europe.

Scent: Juniper essential oil has a crisp, sweet and woody fragrance that is slightly fruity.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Juniper essential oil can be used to help to ease the symptoms of anxiety, nervousness and stress. It is also a useful oil for use when meditating.

Precautions: Juniper essential oil should not be used by those who have kidney or liver problems or those who are pregnant. It should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: Bay, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, carrot seed, cedarwood, clary sage, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, rose geranium, rosemary, spikenard, tangerine, tea tree

Lavandin – Lavandula Hybrida

aromatherapy-lady-smelling-lavender

About: Lavandin is a very similar essential oil to lavender. This plant is actually part lavender and was created when it was crossed with aspic. It is used mainly by the perfume industry, but it is not considered to be as therapeutically beneficial as lavender. However, there are a number of conditions that lavandin is thought to help. The oil is steam distilled from the leaves and the flowers of the plant.

Native Country: The lavendin hybrid plants were originally developed in France.

Scent: Lavandin essential oil is similar to lavender in fragrance but is slightly herbier.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Lavandin essential oil is known to help with stress.

Precautions: Lavandin essential oil is considered a safe oil.

Blends with: Bergamot, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, jasmine, patchouli, pine, rosemary, sage, thyme

Lavender – Lavandula Angustifolia

Essential lavender oil in a dark glass bottle decorated with a bunch of freshly gathered lavender flowers

About: Lavender is the most versatile and useful essential oil that any aromatherapy professional can add to their kit. It can be blended with most other oils and can be used to help with a wide range of conditions and ailments. It is one of the few that is safe to use neat on the skin and it is a useful ingredient for making your own household cleaning products. Lavender is also a very easy herb to grow at home and the oil is steam distilled from the leaves and the flowers.

Native Country: The lavender plants are widely grown around the Mediterranean.

Scent: Lavender essential oil has a floral, gentle fragrance that has a relaxing effect.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Lavender is useful for helping to ease the symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression.

Precautions: Lavender should be avoided by those who have been diagnosed with an oestrogen-dependent cancer. The sedative effects of the oil mean that it should not be used by those who are driving or operating machinery.

Blends with: Basil, bay, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, cajeput, calamus, camphor, caraway, carrot seed, cedarwood, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clove, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus, fennel, fir needle, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, grapefruit, helichrysum, hyssop, juniper, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, manuka, marjoram, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, niaouli, nutmeg, orange, oregano, palmarosa, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, sage, sandalwood, spearmint, spikenard, spruce, tagetes, tea tree, thyme, valerian, vetiver

Lemon Eucalyptus – Eucalyptus Citriodora

About: Lemon eucalyptus can be used for a range of ailments but is also very useful around the home. The essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the plant, which is becoming popular as an indoor houseplant, particularly as it is a very useful insect repellent.

Native Country: The lemon eucalyptus plants originate from north-east Australia.

Scent: Lemon eucalyptus essential oil has a fragrance that is similar to lemon, very sweet but with a woody tone.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Lemon eucalyptus essential oil can have a calming effect that could be helpful during stressful moments.

Precautions: Lemon eucalyptus is not known to have any contra-indications.

Blends with: Basil, black pepper, cedarwood, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, juniper, lavender, marjoram, orange, peppermint, pine, rose geranium, rosemary, sage, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Lemon Verbena – Lippia Citrodora, Aloysia Triphylla

Lemon Verbena

About: Lemon verbena is a plant that can be found all over the world now and the essential oil that is extracted from the leaves can be used for a variety of purposes, while the plant itself is popular in cookery.

Native Country: The lemon verbena plants are native to South America, particularly Chile and Argentina.

Scent: Lemon verbena has a light lemon fragrance that is very fresh.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Lemon verbena essential oil has properties that can help lift your mood and reduce stress and nervousness. It can help to achieve emotional balance.

Precautions: Lemon verbena is a phototoxic oil, so when using it on the skin you should stay out of the sun for between 12 and 24 hours afterwards.

Blends with: Basil, elemi, lemon, neroli, palmarosa

Lemon – Citrus Limon

Essential aroma oil with lemon and mint on wooden background.

About: Lemon essential oil is well-known for its detoxifying qualities and it has good levels of vitamins and minerals. It can be used of a wide range of physical and emotional ailments. The essential oil is cold-pressed from the rind of the fruit.

Native Country: It is not known exactly where lemons first originated but it is thought that it may have been in northern parts of India, Italy, China or Burma.

Scent: Lemon essential oil has a strong citrus fragrance that is unmistakeable.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use with a compress

 

Mind: Lemon essential oil is known to have properties that can help to promote mental alertness.

Precautions: Lemon essential oil can be irritating for those who have sensitive skin and its phototoxic qualities mean that it is better to stay out of the sun for around 24 hours after use. It should be noted that this oil does not tend to last as long as other essential oils – keep for no more than 10 months after purchase.

Blends with: Basil, bay, benzoin, birch, black pepper, camphor, cardamom, carrot seed, cedarwood, cinnamon, citronella, clove, coriander, dill, eucalyptus, fennel, fir needle, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemongrass, lemon verbena, mandarin, manuka, marjoram, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, niaouli, orange, oregano, palmarosa, peppermint, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose germanium, rosemary, rosewood, sage, sandalwood, spearmint, spikenard, tagetes, tangerine, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Lemongrass – Cymbopogon Flexuosus, C.Citratus

lemongrass essential oil and plant on a table

About: Lemongrass essential oil comes from the plant of the same name, which is also well-known for its culinary benefits. The plant is a tropical grass and it is very popular as an insect repellent, but it is also useful for helping with the symptoms of a number of physical ailments. The oil is steam-distilled from the grass.

Native Country: Lemongrass originated in Nepal.

Scent: Lemongrass essential oil has a lemon-like fragrance that is very fresh

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use with a compress

 

Mind: Lemongrass essential oil is used mainly for treating physical ailments.

Precautions: Lemongrass essential oil is occasionally an irritant for those with sensitive skin and it should not be used by those who are suffering from oestrogen-dependent cancers. It is not a safe essential oil for those who are aged 6 and under.

Blends with: Basil, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, coriander, cypress, fennel, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, marjoram, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, rosemary, tea tree, thyme, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Lime – Citrus Aurantiifolia

Lime fruit halves with spa accessories of white towels, waffle covered sponge, aromatherapy essential oil bottle spa stones, sea salt and sea shells over bamboo background.

About: Lime essential oil is a great mood-lifting oil but it also has other alternative medicinal uses as it is packed with antioxidants. The oil is extracted by a process of cold-pressing of the rind of the fruit and it can be used around the home in cleaning solutions and air fresheners.

Native Country: It is thought that limes originally came from Indonesia.

Scent: Lime essential oil has a sweet, citrus and very fresh aroma.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use with a compress

 

Mind: Lime essential oil can help to ease the symptoms of depression and stress and improve mental alertness.

Precautions: Lime essential oil is occasionally an irritant for those with sensitive skin and it also has phototoxic qualities so avoid sunlight for up to 24 hours after use.

Blends with: Black pepper, carrot seed, citronella, clary sage, dill, ginger, jasmine, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, rose geranium, rosemary, rosewood, ylang-ylang

Mandarin Orange – Citrus Reticulata

Ripe mandarins with leaves and bottle of essential citrus oil on a wooden table.

About: Mandarin orange essential oil is well known for having many emotional benefits but it can also be used to ease a number of different physical ailments. The essential oil is obtained by cold-pressing the rind of the fruit. It is considered to be very uplifting and blends well with a number of other oils.

Native Country: It is thought that mandarin oranges originally came from south-east Asia and the Philippines.

Scent: Mandarin orange oil has a sweet, citrus and fruity fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use with a compress

 

Mind: Mandarin orange essential oil can help with emotional issues such as insomnia, nervousness, stress and tension as well as boost moods.

Precautions: Mandarin orange oil can be phototoxic so after use avoid being in direct sunlight for up to 24 hours afterwards.

Blends with: Aniseed, basil, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, fennel, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, sandalwood, valerian, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Manuka – Leptospermum Scoparium

About: Manuka is a plant that has been used for its health benefits for thousands of years. It can be obtained as a tea or added to a range of health treatments. The development of the essential oil is fairly new but it can be used to help a wide range of symptoms.

Native Country: Manuka is a plant that is native to New Zealand.

Scent: The fragrance of manuka is slightly woody, a little earthy and balsamic.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use with a compress

 

Mind: Manuka essential oil can be used to help with controlling anger, easing anxiety and soothing nervousness.

Precautions: Manuka oil should never be taken internally.

Blends with: Basil, bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, German chamomile, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, marjoram, orange, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rosemary, sage, sandalwood, tea tree, thyme

Marjoram – Origanum Majorana, Marjorana Hortensis

marjoram plant with essential oil

About: Marjoram is a popular culinary herb that has been in use for thousands of years. It is well known for its qualities as well as its ability to help with a number of emotional ailments. The oil is obtained by a process of steam distillation from the flowers and leaves of the plant. The herb is very similar to oregano

Native Country: Marjoram originated in Egypt and Arabia.

Scent: Marjoram essential oil has a slightly spicy but very warm aroma.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Marjoram is useful for helping to heal the symptoms of anxiety and stress.

Precautions: Marjoram essential oil should not be used by those who are pregnant and the sedative effect of the oil means that it should not be used by those who are planning to operate machinery or drive within a few hours of use.

Blends with: Basil, bergamot, black pepper, cedarwood, cinnamon, cypress, eucalyptus, fennel, fir needle, German chamomile, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, manuka, orange, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, rosemary, tea tree, thyme.

Melissa – Melissa Officinalis

Essential oil of melissa and fresh leaves of melissa

About: Melissa is also referred to as lemon balm and sweet balm and it has been used for alternative medicinal purposes for thousands of years. The oil is steam distilled from the leaves and the flowers. Melissa is considered to be a rare essential oil and as a result it is often very expensive.

Native Country: Melissa essential oil is native to the Mediterranean region.

Scent: Melissa essential oil has a lemon fragrance that is fresh and slightly herby.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Melissa essential oil is considered to be useful for lifting your mood and reducing nervousness and stress.

Precautions: Melissa essential oil is considered to be an irritant for those who have sensitive skin so a patch test is recommended. It should also be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bergamot, camphor, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, lavender, lemon, neroli, orange, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose

Myrrh – Commiphora Myrrha

Myrrh essential oil and resin

About: Myrrh has long been seen as a luxury product and was used by the Egyptians as part of the embalming process. It can support a range of health areas. The essential oil is steam distilled from the tree resin and the herb has also been used in Chinese medicine.

Native Country: The tree from which Myrrh is obtained is native to parts of Africa such as Somalia.

Scent: Myrrh essential oil has a warm fragrance that is earthy, woody and slightly balsamic.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Myrrh essential oil is considered to be useful during meditation and its sedative effects can be very calming during times of stress.

Precautions: Myrrh essential oil is not considered to be safe to be used internally and it should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Benzoin, bergamot, clove, cypress, elemi, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, pine, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosemary, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, tea tree, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Neroli – Citrus Aurantium

neroli plant and oranges

By Ellen Levy Finch (Elf) (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Neroli essential oil is one that is very popular with aromatherapy professionals. To create 1lb of essential oil it takes around 1000lbs of orange blossoms. This means that this is also one of the most expensive oils to use. It can help with a range of emotional and physical ailments. The oil is obtained by a process of steam distillation.
Native Country: The blossoms come from the bitter orange tree that is native to parts of China and Vietnam.
Scent: Neroli essential oil has a strong citrus fragrance that is also sweet and floral.
Consistency: medium
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage
Mind: Neroli essential oil is useful for lifting your mood and reducing anxiety and stress.
Precautions: Neroli essential oil has a natural sedative effect so it is a good idea to avoid driving or operating machinery after using it.

Blends with: Allspice, basil, benzoin, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, coriander, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon verbena, lime, mandarin, Melissa, myrrh, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose geranium, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, ylang-ylang

Niaouli – Melaleuca Viridiflora, M.Quinquenervia

niaouli plant

By B. HENRY (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Niaouli is similar to tea tree oil. There is a range of health benefits to the oil. It is obtained by a process of steam distillation from the leaves of the plant. It is interchangeable with tea tree oil and for some users it may be the better choice as it is less likely to irritate the skin.
Native Country: The plant is native to Australia.
Scent: Niaouli essential oil has an earthy, strong and musty fragrance.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage
Mind: Niaouli essential oil is considered to be useful for promoting mental alertness.
Precautions: Niaouli essential oil is considered generally safe for use

Blends with: Bergamot, eucalyptus, fennel, lavender, lemon, orange, peppermint, rosemary, tea tree

Nutmeg – Myristica Fragrans

nutmeg oil

About: Nutmeg is a spice that is popular in cuisine all over the world, but few are aware that the essential oil has a wide range of benefits. It is considered to be useful for both emotional and physical ailments and it can be blended with a number of other oils. The essential oil is steam distilled from the seeds.

Native Country: The tree that nutmeg is derived from is native to the Banda Islands in Indonesia.

Scent: Nutmeg essential oil has a fragrance that is similar to the spice – strong, spicy and slightly woody.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Nutmeg essential oil is known for aiding mental alertness

Precautions: Nutmeg essential oil should not be taken internally and it should not be used by those who are pregnant. It is not a suitable remedy for those who are suffering from cancer and the relaxing effects of the oil mean it should not be used before driving or operating machinery.

Blends with: Bay, bergamot, black pepper, camphor, carrot seed, cassia, cinnamon, clary sage, coriander, dill, geranium, lavender, lime, mandarin, petitgrain, rosemary, tangerine, tea tree

Orange – Citrus Sinensis

orange tree

By JanRehschuh (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: The health beenfits of oranges are well-known, but the essential oil can also help support your health also. It is a very good mood-lifting oil, which is obtained by cold-pressing from the rind of the fruit. It is a popular oil to add to household cleaning products.
Native Country: The orange tree is thought to have originated in southern China and north-eastern parts of India.
Scent: The fragrance of orange essential oil is like very concentrated oranges and sweet.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage
Mind: Orange essential oil can help reduce stress and nervousness
Precautions: Orange essential oil is phototoxic so those who use it should stay out of the sun for at least 12 hours afterwards. You should be aware that the essential oil has a short shelf life so should only be used up to 6 months after purchase.

Blends with: Allspice, basil, bay, benzoin, bergamot, birch, black pepper, camphor, caraway, cardamom, carrot seed, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, dill, eucalyptus, fennel, fir needle, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, manuka, marjoram, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, niaouli, nutmeg, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, rose geranium, rosewood, sandalwood, spearmint, tagetes, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Oregano – Origanum Vulgare

Fresh oregano twig and oil on wooden background

About: Oregano is a popular herb in Mediterranean cuisine but it also has a wide range of medicinal benefits. The oil is obtained by steam distillation from the leaves and the flowers of the herb.

Native Country: The first recorded use of oregano is by the ancient Greeks, although the herb is widely found in the Mediterranean region. The plant is usually found in mountainous areas.

Scent: The fragrance of oregano is sharp and herbaceous.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Oregano essential oil is used mainly for treating physical symptoms.

Precautions: Oregano can be irritating on some sensitive skins so a patch test is recommended. It can also be an irritant on the mucus membranes. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bay, bergamot, camphor, cedarwood, citronella, cypress, eucalyptus, German chamomile, lavender, lemon, orange, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rosemary, tea tree, thyme

Palmarosa – Cymbopogon Martinii

palmarosa

By Alabama Essential Oils [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Palmarosa is a great essential oil to have around if dry skin is a problem. It is extracted from a wild grass that has a flowering top by a process of steam distillation and it is often used in cosmetic products. However, it has plenty of other health benefits too.
Native Country: Palmarosa grass is native to south-east Asia.
Scent: Palmarosa essential oil has a fragrance that is similar to roses.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, it can be used neat in certain circumstances
Mind: Palmarosa essential oil is considered to be useful for boosting mental alertness and for easing the symptoms of stress.
Precautions: Palmarosa essential oil is generally considered safe for use.

Blends with: Bay, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, clove, coriander, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, orange, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, ylang-ylang.

Patchouli – Pogostemon Cablin

Patchouli sprig with essential oil.

About: Patchouli is an essential oil that was originally very popular in the 1960s and 70s with the hippy movement but it has health benefits as well as cosmetic. It has a long shelf-life and is a useful addition to any practitioner’s collection of oils. The oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the plant.

Native Country: Patchouli is found in tropical areas such as Hawaii and parts of Asia.

Scent: Patchouli essential oil has a strong, spicy and earthy aroma.

Consistency: medium – thick

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, it can be used neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Patchouli essential oil is considered to be useful for lifting the mood and reducing anxiety. It can help to bring around emotional balance and is useful during meditation.

Precautions: Patchouli essential oil is generally considered safe for use

Blends with: Allspice, bay, bergamot, black pepper, calamus, cardamom, cedarwood, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lavandin, lavender, lemongrass, mandarin, manuka, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, valerian, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Peppermint – Mentha X Piperita

Essential aroma oil with peppermint on wooden background.

About: Peppermint essential oil is one of the most refreshing and one of the most popular, mainly because it is a very versatile oil. The oil is steam distilled from the leaves and flowers of the peppermint plant and it has been in use for thousands of years.

Native Country: Peppermint is native to Europe and the Middle East.

Scent: Peppermint essential oil has a strong menthol fragrance

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, it can be used neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Peppermint essential oil is considered to be useful in lifting your mood and for boosting mental alertness.

Precautions: Peppermint essential oil can be irritating for those who suffer from sensitive skin so a patch test is recommended. It can also be irritating for the mucus membranes. While it can be a useful oil for indigestion but it can aggravate acid reflux and heartburn. Peppermint should be avoided by those who suffer from epilepsy and by those who are pregnant. It is not suitable for those who are aged 6 and under.

Blends with: Basil, benzoin, black pepper, cinnamon, cypress, dill, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, manuka, marjoram, niaouli, pine, rose geranium, rosemary, spearmint, tea tree

Petitgrain – Citrus Aurantium

petitgrain

By www.zoqy.net [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Petitgrain is sometimes called bitter orange, but the fragrance is one that makes this a very popular oil. It is often used to help with emotional issues, but can be used to help with a variety of physical ailments. The oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the neroli tree, and occasionally from the branches too.
Native Country: The tree is native to southern Vietnam.
Scent: Petitgrain essential oil has a slightly floral, citrusy fragrance.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage
Mind: Petitgrain essential oil is considered to be useful in lifting your mood and dealing with anxiety, stress as well as for nervousness and relaxation.
Precautions: The sedative effect of petitgrain means that those using it should not drive or operate machinery directly afterwards.

Blends with: Aniseed, benzoin, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, manuka, marjoram, Melissa, neroli, nutmeg, orange, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, rose, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, tangerine, valerian, ylang-ylang

Pine – Pinus Sylvestris

Essential pine oil

About: Pine is a great all-round essential oil as it can help the mind and body as well as be useful around the house. The oil is steam distilled from the needles of the tree and has been used for thousands of years.

Native Country: The tree is native to much of the northern hemisphere.

Scent: Pine essential oil has a fresh, woody and slightly balsamic fragrance.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Pine essential oil has properties that can help to deal with nervousness and stress and help to boost mental alertness.

Precautions: Pine essential oil should not be used by those who are pregnant or on children aged 6 and under. The potential for irritating the skin means that a patch test is recommended.

Blends with: Bay, bergamot, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, fennel, fir needle, frankincense, grapefruit, juniper, lavandin, lavender, lemon eucalyptus, manuka, marjoram, myrrh, oregano, peppermint, rosemary, sandalwood, spikenard, spruce, tea tree, thyme, valerian

Roman Chamomile – Anthemis Nobilis

Essential oil and chamomile flowers in mortar close up

About: Roman chamomile is famous for being a good sedative oil and is slightly more so than German chamomile. The wide range of physical and emotional ailments that can be aided with this oil means that it is a must for anyone building a small kit of oils. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the flowers.

Native Country: The herb is grown in many parts of the world now but was first used medicinally by the ancient Egyptians.

Scent: Roman chamomile essential oil has a fresh, sweet and herbaceous fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, dilute for a tonsillitis gargle, use as a mouthwash for dental issues, use neat on wounds

 

Mind: Roman chamomile essential oil can be used to help with easing the symptoms of anxiety and stress.

Precautions: Roman chamomile essential oil has a natural sedative effect and should not be used just prior to driving or operating machinery. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bergamot, camphor, caraway, cassia, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, manuka, Melissa, myrrh, neroli, oakmoss, oregano, palmarosa, patchouli, rose, rose geranium, tangerine, tea tree, ylang-ylang

Rose Geranium – Pelargonium Graveolens

rose geranium

About: Rose geranium is a popular essential oil but despite the fact that there are more than 700 types of geranium plant, only one produces this oil, which can help a wide range of ailments. The process of steam distillation is used to extract the essential oil from the leaves of the plant.

Native Country: The plant is native to South Africa.

Scent: Rose geranium has a slightly floral, rose-like fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Rose geranium oil can be used to help lift your mood and reduce stress.

Precautions: Rose geranium essential oil can be a problem for some people who have sensitive skin so a patch test is recommended. It should also be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Allspice, basil, bay, bergamot, cajeput, carrot seed, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, clove, cypress, fennel, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lime, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, Roman chamomile, rose, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Rose – Rosa X Damascena

Bottles of Essential Oil for Aromatherapy. Rose oil

About: The aroma of rose essential oil is considered to be relaxing and the oil has properties that make it great for a variety of skin complaints. The oil is steam distilled from the flowers of the plant.

Native Country: The flowers are known to have developed all over the northern hemisphere but domestic cultivation began in China around 5000 years ago.

Scent: Rose essential oil has a floral and slightly sweet fragrance.

Consistency: thick

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Rose oil can be used to help to lift your mood and deal with the symptoms of anxiety, stress as well as nervousness and grief.

Precautions: Rose essential oil should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bay, benzoin, bergamot, cedarwood, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, fennel, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, Melissa, myrrh, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose geranium, rosewood, sandalwood, spikenard, tangerine, vetiver, ylang-ylang

Rosemary – Rosmarinus Officinalis

Rosemary essential oil in a small glass vial and plant with flowers

About: Rosemary has become very popular as a medicinal plant, because it can be used for so many different conditions and symptoms. The oil is known to have rejuvenating properties so is often used in skin and hair care and the claimed memory boost means that it is a popular oil with students.

Native Country: Rosemary is found all around the Mediterranean region.

Scent: Rosemary essential oil has an herbaceous fragrance that is slightly medicinal. Some varieties are similar to eucalyptus.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use as a compress

 

Mind: Rosemary essential oil can help with memory function and mental alertness.

Precautions: Rosemary essential oil should not be used by those who suffer from hypertension, those who are pregnant and those who have epilepsy.

Blends with: Basil, bay, bergamot, birch, black pepper, calamus, camphor, cassia, cedarwood, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, elemi, eucalyptus, fennel, fir needle, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, grapefruit, helichrysum, hyssop, juniper, lavandin, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lime, manuka, marjoram, myrrh, niaouli, nutmeg, oregano, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, rose geranium, sage, spearmint, spruce, tea tree, thyme, valerian

Rosewood – Aniba Rosaeodora

rosewood

By Anonymous (email) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Rosewood is good for the skin and to support emotions. However, Rosewood is not a common oil because it is actually endangered so the chances of finding it from a standard supplier are slim. The oil is steam distilled from the wood.
Native Country: Rosewood is found in a number of areas with Brazilian and Indian varieties.
Scent: Rosewood essential oil has a sweet, woody and fruity fragrance.
Consistency: thin
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, diluted for massage, use as a compress
Mind: Rosewood essential oil can help lift your mood and can also be useful for boosting emotional balance.
Precautions: Rosewood essential oil is generally thought to be safe for use.
Blends with: Aniseed, bergamot, geranium, jasmine, lemon, lime, orange, petitgrain, rose, rose geranium, sage, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Sage – Salvia Officinalis

Essential sage oil in a dark glass bottle decorated with a bunch of freshly gathered green sage leaves

About: Sage essential oil is taken from the herb of the same name, which has long been very popular in cooking, but the essential oil is proving to be just as popular in supporting a number of medical conditions. The herb has been used medicinally for centuries. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the leaves of the plant.

Native Country: Sage is native to the Mediterranean region.

Scent: Sage essential oil has a fresh, herbaceous and camphor-like fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Sage essential oil can help lift your mood and can be used to boost mental alertness.

Precautions: Sage essential oil should never be taken internally and it should be avoided by those who suffer from epilepsy. It can be irritating for those who have sensitive skin so a patch test is recommended. It should also be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Black pepper, elemi, hyssop, lavandin, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, manuka, rosemary, rosewood

Sandalwood – Santalum Album

Sandalwood in an olive wood spoon over white background.

About: Sandalwood has been used for thousands of years, mainly for the wonderful fragrance. It is a good essential oil for a wide range of health benefits. The oil is steam distilled from the wood.

Native Country: Sandalwood is native to Asia and eastern parts of India.

Scent: Sandalwood essential oil is a floral, woody, sweet fragrance.

Consistency: medium-thick

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Sandalwood essential oil is useful for easing anger and irritability, as well as lifting your mood and reducing nervousness. It is a good oil for use during meditation.

Precautions: Sandalwood essential oil has sedative qualities so care should be taken if using the oil then driving or operating machinery.

Blends with: Benzoin, bergamot, birch, black pepper, cardamom, cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, fennel, frankincense, geranium, ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, manuka, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, rose, rose geranium, rosewood, tangerine, vetiver, ylang-ylang.

Spearmint – Mentha Spicata

Spearmint leaves with essential oil in eyedropper bottle

About: Spearmint is a mint oil that is not as strong as peppermint. It is used for a variety of health conditions and it is often used as a replacement for peppermint oil because it is milder and gentler. It is obtained by a process of steam distillation from the leaves and flowers of the plant.

Native Country: Spearmint is native to the Mediterranean region.

Scent: Spearmint essential oil has a mild mint fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage,

 

Mind: Spearmint essential oil can be used to help to lift the mood and ease mental fatigue, as well as nervousness and stress.

Precautions: Spearmint essential oil can be irritating for the mucus membranes and can also be a problem for those who suffer from sensitive skin, so a patch test is recommended.

Blends with: Basil, benzoin, dill, eucalyptus, jasmine, lavender, lemon, orange, peppermint, rosemary

Spikenard – Nardostachys Jatamansi

spikenard

Image Credit: http://onlyjesuschristcansaveyou.blogspot.com.au/2015/04/daily-bible-verse-song-of-solomon.html

About: Spikenard is an herb that is very similar to valerian and occasionally it is called Indian valerian. It is a useful herb for conditions like insomnia but it has also been used in perfumery. The herb has been used medicinally for many centuries. The oil is obtained by steam distilling the plant’s roots.

Native Country: Spikenard originates from Nepal, China and India.

Scent: Spikenard essential oil has an earthy, woody and harsh fragrance.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage,

 

Mind: Spikenard essential oil can be used to help with nervousness, stress and tension.

Precautions: Spikenard essential oil is a relatively strong sedative so it is considered to be safer to avoid it before driving or operating machinery.

Blends with: Clary sage, clove, cypress, frankincense, geranium, juniper, lavender, lemon, myrrh, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, pine, rose, vetiver

Spruce – Tsuga Canadensis, Hemlock Spruce

spruce oil

About: Spruce is an essential oil from the evergreen family and it is one that is becoming increasingly popular. It can be used for freshening the air but it is also very useful for easing a number of physical conditions. The essential oil is steam distilled from the needles of the spruce tree. Care should be taken not to use the oil once it has oxidised.

Native Country: There is evidence to suggest that the original spruce trees came from North America.

Scent: Spruce essential oil has a fresh, woody and earthy fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage,

 

Mind: Spruce essential oil can be used to help with meditation and relaxation and can help to ease the symptoms of stress.

Precautions: Spruce essential oil is sometimes irritating for those who have sensitive skin so it is a good idea to conduct a patch test before using the oil.

Blends with: Benzoin, cedarwood, clary sage, lavender, pine, rosemary

Tagetes – Tagetes Minuta

tagetes

Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Wikinoby~commonswiki

About: Tagetes is growing in popularity as it is a useful insect repellent although it is not as popular in alternative medicine yet. The herb that the oil is taken from is very similar to the marigold. The oil is obtained by steam distilling the flowers.

Native Country: Tagetes essential oil is believed to be native to Africa.

Scent: Tagetes essential oil has a fresh, sweet and floral fragrance.

Consistency: thin-medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Tagetes essential oil is used mainly to assist with physical conditions.

Precautions: Tagetes essential oil can occasionally be irritating for the skin so some people may have to do a patch test first. The essential oil itself is a very strong oil so it should be blended with care. The oil is also phototoxic so those using it should not go out into the sun afterwards for at least 12 hours afterwards. It should be avoided by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bergamot, clary sage, jasmine, lavender, lemon, orange

Tangerine – Citrus Reticulata

Tangerine oil in a glass bottle with fresh tangerines on wooden background

About: Tangerine is part of the mandarin family and the essential oil is very similar to mandarin oil, although the fragrance is different. The essential oil is obtained by cold-pressing the rind of the fruit. Avoid the use of tangerine essential oil that has oxidised.

Native Country: Tangerine is thought to have originated in Northern Africa.

Scent: Tangerine essential oil has a fresh, sweet and citrusy fragrance.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Tangerine essential oil can be used to help to boost moods and ease nervousness as well as deal with stress and tension

Precautions: Tangerine essential oil can be irritating for those who have sensitive skin so a patch test might be necessary. The oil may be phototoxic for some so it should not be used before going out in the sun for at least 12 hours.

Blends with: Basil, black pepper, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, fennel, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lemon, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Tea Tree – Melaleuca Alternifolia

Spa composition with tea tree oil on white background

About: Tea tree essential oil is widely considered to be one of the most useful essential oils that can be used for a wide variety of health and household benefits. It is a useful addition to household cleaners. Those who find the fragrance of tea tree to be too strong can try manuka as an alternative. The essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the tree.

Native Country: Tea tree originated in Australia.

Scent: The fragrance of tea tree oil is fresh, herbaceous and woody.

Consistency: thin

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, use neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Tea tree essential oil is used mainly for physical purposes.

Precautions: Tea tree essential oil should not be used internally and it may be irritating for those who have sensitive skin. If unsure, carry out a patch test.

Blends with: Basil, bergamot, black pepper, calamus, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, German chamomile, helichrysum, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, manuka, marjoram, myrrh, niaouli, nutmeg, oregano, peppermint, pine, ravensara, Roman chamomile, rosemary, thyme, ylang-ylang

Thyme – Thymus Vulgaris

thyme essential oil

About: Thyme is one of the world’s oldest-known medicinal plants and it continues to be popular for its health benefits both in the form of fresh and dried herb. The essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves and the flowers of the herb and is popular with aromatherapy professionals for the wide range of conditions that it can help.

Native Country: Thyme originated in the Mediterranean region.

Scent: The fragrance of thyme oil is fresh, herbaceous and medicinal.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, use neat in certain circumstances

 

Mind: Thyme essential oil can be used to help lift your mood and to help to boost memory function

Precautions: Thyme essential oil might be a problem for those who have sensitive skin so a patch test might be a good idea. It can be irritating for the mucus membranes and it should not be used by those who are pregnant.

Blends with: Bay, bergamot, cajeput, cinnamon, eucalyptus, grapefruit, helichrysum, lavandin, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, manuka, marjoram, oregano, pine, rosemary, tea tree

Valerian – Valeriana Officinalis

Valerian herb flowers with aromatherapy essential oil bottle and pills

About: Valerian is a great natural sedative so it has become popular to help those who need help sleeping, but the herb has been in use for this purpose for centuries. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the root of the plant.

Native Country: Valerian is native to Europe, North America and parts of Asia.

Scent: Valerian essential oil has a slightly sweet and earthy fragrance.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

 

Mind: Valerian essential oil is calming so can help with anxiety, depression, insomnia, nervousness and stress. It can help to bring about a sense of emotional balance.

Precautions: Valerian essential oil might not be suitable for those who have sensitive skin so a patch test should be carried out. It should not be used before driving or operating machinery due to the sedative effect. The oil should be avoided by those who are pregnant and it should not be used on children aged 6 and under.

Blends with: cedarwood, lavender, mandarin, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, rosemary

Vetiver – Vetiveria Zizanoides

vetiver plant

By treesftf [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

About: Vetiver is considered to be useful for balancing all aspects of body and mind. The oil is obtained by steam distillation from the roots of the grass. The strength of the aroma of vetiver oil means that it should be blended before use.
Native Country: Vetiver is native to tropical areas such as India, Haiti and Java.
Scent: Vetiver has a fragrance that is earthy and herby.
Consistency: thick
Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage, it can be used neat in certain circumstances
Mind: Vetiver can help lift your mood and the calming properties might help with with absent-mindedness, anger, anxiety, achieving emotional balance, insomnia and stress and it is good to use with meditation
Precautions: Vetiver has a sedative effect that means that driving and operating machinery could be dangerous so avoid these activities after using the oil.
Blends with: Bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, coriander, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, mandarin, myrrh, orange, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, ylang-ylang

Ylang-Ylang – Cananga Odorata

Ylang ylang flowers and essential oil

About: Ylang-ylang is a popular essential oil that can help with a wide range of emotional and physical complaints. The essential oil is steam distilled from the flowers of the plant. There are different levels of distillation for this oil so it is important to make sure which level you are buying.

Native Country: Ylang-ylang is native to the Philippines.

Scent: Ylang-ylang essential oil has a fragrance that is fresh, floral and sweet.

Consistency: medium

Application methods: diffusing, dilution in the bath or shower, use as a compress, diluted for massage

Mind: Ylang-ylang can help to lift your mood and reduce anger, anxiety, grief, nervousness and stress. It is a useful oil when meditating.

Precautions: Nausea and headaches can be a side effect of using too much of ylang-ylang essential oil. The sedative effect of the oil means that it should not be used just before driving or operating machinery.

Blends with: Allspice, bay, bergamot, black pepper, calamus, cardamom, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, fennel, frankincense, geranium, German chamomile, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, jasmine, lemon, lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass, lime, mandarine, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, Roman chamomile, rose, rose geranium, rosewood, sandalwood, tangerine, tea tree, vetiver

 

The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by medical practitioners. Neither Sacred Soul Holistics nor its products are intended for the purpose of diagnosing, treating, curing, or preventing any disease. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your physician before using these products. Although every attempt has been made to gather accurate information about the oils, you will still find different claims and variations of the benefits/properties associated with each oil around the web. Please feel free to make suggestions to improve this page for the benefit everyone.  Essential oils are for external use only and under no circumstances should they be ingested.  All content on this page is for information only.

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